1. MMF bipoles are not randomly oriented. In 21 out of 28 (75%) MMFs pairs, the magnetic element with the sunspot's polarity is located farther from the sunspot and a bipole is rotated counter-clockwise when the sunspot have positive helicity, and vice versa.
  2. There seems to be a link between amount of rotation of the MMFs bipole, and amount of twist in the sunspot . Bipoles around the sunspot with strong twist oriented nearly perpendicular to the sunspot radius, while bipoles of slightly twisted sunspot are oriented mostly parallel to the radius.
  3. The magnetic element of the same polarity as the sunspot comes out first, and the magnetic element of the opposite polarity appears second to form the MMFs bipolar pair.
  4. The majority of MMFs pairs consist of a stronger and compact magnetic element with the polarity of the sunspot, and a weaker and diffuse magnetic element of opposite polarity.

©BBSO/NJIT Seminar on OCT 99, 2000